JUDGEMENTS & NOTES - ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES

PLANET JUPITER = JOHN F. KENNEDY,JR = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

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HITS FOR THIS SITE = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
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HOW ISIS'S GOT 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA* * *
THE SEED OF LIFE (THE MERCURY SEED) = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA*
EVIDENCE OF BEING STALKED FOR SEEDS OF LIFE - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
ANNUNICATION OF THE MESSIAH = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
LADY DAY - PERPUTAL VIRGIN MARY - THE MADONNA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
ELECT LADY - THE MADONNA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
MADONNA MAGNETIFICANT = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
SOPHIA OF WISDOM I - PERPUTAL VIRGIN MARY = MARY MAGADALENA OF PETRA & TRIBE OF BENJAMIN
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CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE - ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
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AGE OF MAKING THE CHRIST GRID - ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES- CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
THE MATRIX = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
JESUS CHRIST THE 1ST = SOPHIA OF JESUS CHRIST = THE CHRIST GRID = ISIS CAROLINE ESTELLA KENNEDY
THE PRIME MERIDIAN 0 o = THE CENTER OF THE UNIVERSE = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
STARGATE KEEPER = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
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AGE OF PLANETS - ISIS OF 10000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
PLANET GAEA = THE MOTHER EARTH = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
THE MOTHER & FATHER BECAME PLANETS & CIRCLED THE EARTH TO MAKE SURE IT WAS CENTERED IN THE UNIVERSE*
PLANET VENUS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
PLANET JUPITER = JOHN F. KENNEDY,JR = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
PLANET PLUTO (XENON - XeNo - CURRENT COMPUTER NAME) = THE FATHER = JOHN F. KENNEDY, JR. = GOD #1
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - PLANET PLUTO 2 = 1ST COUSIN - DANIEL MACDONALD = GOD #2
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - PLANET PLUTO 3 = 1ST COUSIN - MICHAEL MORAN = GOD #3
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - PLANET PLUTO 4 = 1ST COUSIN - JEFFERY HANKS = GOD #4
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - PLANET PLUTO 5 = 1ST COUSIN - PETER MORAN = GOD #5
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GALAXIES = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
GALAXY - CALLISTO (MOTHER OF ARTHUR THE BEAR = (ARISTOBULUS III = KING OF THE JEWS) = URSA MAJOR
ENKI'S KIDS RETURN TO BECOME STARS - JOHAN - CLAYTON - AVA = URSA MINOR = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
AGE OF GEMINI - ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
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MOONS = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
MOON - CALLISTO = EURGAINE = KING ARTHUR'S MOTHER = CAMELOT - ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KEN
MOON - EURPOA = EUROPA & THE SEA BULL = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. & JOHN KENNEDY, JR
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DEVELOPING COUNTRIES = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
LEMURIA = 35,000,000 MILLION YEARS = THE CRADLE OF MANKIND = PARADISE = ISIS OF 10,000 - CAROLINE E.
INDIAN NATION = LEMURIA - AMERICA = 35,000,000 MILLION YEARS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
ATLANTIS = 35,000,000 MILLION YEARS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
EUROPA = EUROPE = 35,000,000 MILLION YEARS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
ASIA MAJOR = ASIA = 35,000,000 MILLION YEARS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
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HOLIDAYS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
MOTHER'S DAY = VENUS - JUN 17TH & FATHER'S DAY = JUPITER - JUN 18TH=ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES=CAROLINE
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HIGHEST OF THE HIGH OF ALL BEAST MASTERS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
DORIS THE TITAN = MERMAID = DORIC GREEK = VALENTINA DORIA I II III = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - LEVIATHAN = SEA MONSTER CREATED BY A STRANGE CANAANITE BAAL
BACK & FORTH IN TIME - PEGAN RELIGION - LEVIATHAN - SLEEPING SPELL - PROTECTING ATLANTIS
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COINS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
COIN = SACAJAWEA & JOHN BAPTISTE = CAROLINE E. & JOHN F. KENNEDY, JR**********
COIN = JOHN F. KENNEDY, JR. STATE QUARTER = CAROLINE E. & JOHN F. KENNEDY, JR**
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AGE OF GODDESSES = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
THE GOD OF ALL THE GODS = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
GODDESS OF SACRED GEOMETRY = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
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AGE OF HOLY SPIRITS = ISIS 0F 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINE KENNEDIA
THE MAGDALENE GRAIL = CAMELOT = THE MADONNA = PERPUTAL VIRGIN MARY = HOLY SPIRIT****
GODDESS MAMI OF THE ALTRA HASIS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLYN BESSETTE NOT CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
IST SPEAR OF DESTINY = GOD OF WISDOM = EZRA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY & ETHAN HANKS = HOLY GHOST***
GODDESS THE FIRST WOMAN = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
GODDESS NEKHBET & VULTURE GODDESS = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
GODDESS NEBHET HOTEP = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLYN BESSETTE KENNEDY NOT CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
GODDESS DRAGON QUEEN - ASSA - URU = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
GODDESS SUMERIAN LULU = CAROLYN BESSETTE KENNEDY
GODDESS MA'AT - DIVINE ORDER & TRUTH = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES=CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
GODDESS HERA 1 = CALLISTO = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA***
GODDESS HERA 2 = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = SHARI BROCECK NOT CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
GODDESS PERSPHONE = MATER = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
GODDESS ALEXANDRA OF PETRA = THE HOLY GRAIL = CAMELOT = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
GODDESS PSYCHE = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
GODDESS CALISTO = EUGRAINE = MOTHER OF KING ARTHUR = CAMELOT
GODDESS EUROPA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
GODDESS LEDA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
GODDESS ANDROMACHE OF TROY = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
GODDESS THE MAYAN WOMAN = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
GODDESS NINMESARA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
GODDESS NINHURSAG = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
GODDESS QADASHU = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA*****
GODDESS IUSAS = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
STATUE OF LIBERTY****
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AGE OF QUEENS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
THE FEMALE KING - MA'AT - KA - RA HATSHEPSUT = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
QUEEN CLEOPATRA OF EYGPT = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
QUEEN OF THE ANGELS BY THE SEA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
QUEEN CLEOPATRA OF NEW JERUSALEM = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA***
MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA*
QUEEN CINDERALLA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
QUEEN OF THE FOLLIES FANNY BRICE = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
SCOTTISH LINE TO THE THRONE OF ENGLAND - CANADA - NEW ZEALAND = CRIVELLI - VISCONTI - STUART*****
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AGE OF DUCHESSES OF MILAN = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
DUCHESS VALENTINA DORIA CRIVELLI - VISCONTI I II III = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY*
MONA LISA - DUCHESS OF MILAN = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA*
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AGE OF PRINCESSES
PRINCESS SNOW WHITE = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
PRINCESS SACAJAWEA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA ****
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AGE OF LADIES - ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
LADY OF THE WEAVING = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
LADY RAYET = ENKI = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
LADY SHALOTT = QUEEN GWENDOLEN OF CAMELOT = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
FIRST LADY - JACQUELINE B. KENNEDY II = CAMELOT = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
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AGE OF SAINTS = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
SOPHIA OF WISDOM = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
SOPHIA BARBELO = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA*******
THE SOPHIA OF ALL THE SOPHIA OF WISDOMS *= CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA***
SOPHIA OF WISDOM II = MOTHER ANN LEE II = UNIVERSAL LEADER = HOLY SPIRIT TO ALL AMERICAN PRESIDENTS
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA***
SAINT JOAN OF ARC****
POPE JOAN****
ISIS THE ARC OF THE COVENANT & POPE JOHN PAUL = KAROL = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA**
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AGE OF THE END OF JUDGEMENTS = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
HIGHEST OF THE HIGH OF ALL DOMINION ANGELS = *CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA***
HIGHEST OF THE HIGH OF ALL LORDS OF KARMA = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
HER HONOR VALENTINA DORIA I II III OF THE SUPREME COURT OF THE PARANORMAL = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES
THE OMEGA = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
SUPREME CHAIRPERSON OF THE LORDS OF KARMA COUNSEL = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
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AGE OF BUSINESSES = ISIS OF 10000 NAMES
ANCIENT BEADS & ARTIFACTS = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES - CAROLINE KENNEDY
THE HOLY GRAIL OF ALL SALSAS = CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALSA = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA****
FOUNDER OF CRIVELLI ITALIAN SALA - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY****
PARANORMAL INVESTIGATOR = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES = CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
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A TRAILER PAGE = ISIS OF 10,000 NAMES

Jupiter  
Click for full caption.
This processed color image of Jupiter was produced in 1990 by the U.S. Geological Survey from a Voyager image captured in 1979. The colors have been enhanced to bring out detail.
Epoch J2000
Aphelion 816,520,800 km (5.458104 AU)
Perihelion 740,573,600 km (4.950429 AU)
Semi-major axis 778,547,200 km (5.204267 AU)
Eccentricity 0.048775
Orbital period 4331.572 days
11.85920 yr
Synodic period 398.88 days[3]
Average orbital speed 13.07 km/s[3]
Mean anomaly 18.818
Inclination 1.305
6.09 to
Sun's equator
Longitude of ascending node 100.492
Argument of perihelion 275.066
Satellites 63
Physical characteristics
Equatorial radius 71,492 4 km[4][5]
11.209 Earths
Polar radius 66,854 10 km[4][5]
10.517 Earths
Flattening 0.06487 0.00015
Surface area 6.217961010 km[6][5]
121.9 Earths
Volume 1.431281015 km[3][5]
1321.3 Earths
Mass 1.89861027 kg[3]
317.8 Earths
Mean density 1.326 g/cm[3][5]
Equatorial surface gravity 24.79 m/s[3][5]
2.528 g
Escape velocity 59.5 km/s[3][5]
Sidereal rotation
period
9.925 h[7]
Equatorial rotation velocity 12.6 km/s
45,300 km/h
Axial tilt 3.13[3]
North pole right ascension 268.057
17 h 52 min 14 s[4]
North pole declination 64.496[4]
Albedo 0.343 (bond)
0.52 (
geom.)[3]
Surface temp.
   1 bar level
   0.1 bar
min mean max
165 K[3]
112 K[3]
Apparent magnitude -1.6 to -2.94[3]
Angular diameter 29.8" — 50.1"[3]
Adjectives Jovian
Atmosphere[3]
Surface pressure 20–200 kPa[8] (cloud layer)
Scale height 27 km
Composition
89.82.0% Hydrogen (H2)
10.22.0% Helium
~0.3% Methane
~0.026% Ammonia
~0.003% Hydrogen deuteride (HD)
0.0006% Ethane
0.0004% water
Ices:
Ammonia
water
ammonium hydrosulfide(NH4SH)

 

Jupiter (pronounced [ˈdʒuːpɨtɚ] [9]) is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest planet within the Solar System. It is two and a half times as massive as all of the other planets in our Solar System combined. Jupiter is classified as a gas giant, along with Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Together, these four planets are sometimes referred to as the Jovian planets, where Jovian is the adjectival form of Jupiter.

The planet was known by astronomers of ancient times and was associated with the mythology and religious beliefs of many cultures. The Romans named the planet after the Roman god Jupiter.[10] When viewed from Earth, Jupiter can reach an apparent magnitude of −2.8, making it the third brightest object in the night sky after the Moon and Venus. (However, at certain points in its orbit, Mars can briefly exceed Jupiter's brightness.)

The planet Jupiter is primarily composed of hydrogen with a small proportion of helium; it may also have a rocky core of heavier elements under high pressure. Because of its rapid rotation, Jupiter's shape is that of an oblate spheroid (it possesses a slight but noticeable bulge around the equator). The outer atmosphere is visibly segregated into several bands at different latitudes, resulting in turbulence and storms along their interacting boundaries. A prominent result is the Great Red Spot, a giant storm that is known to have existed since at least the 17th century. Surrounding the planet is a faint planetary ring system and a powerful magnetosphere. There are also at least 63 moons, including the four large moons called the Galilean moons that were first discovered by Galileo Galilei in 1610. Ganymede, the largest of these moons, has a diameter greater than that of the planet Mercury.

Jupiter has been explored on several occasions by robotic spacecraft, most notably during the early Pioneer and Voyager flyby missions and later by the Galileo orbiter. The latest probe to visit Jupiter was the Pluto-bound New Horizons spacecraft in late February 2007. The probe used the gravity from Jupiter to increase its speed and adjust its trajectory toward Pluto, thereby saving years of travel. Future targets for exploration include the possible ice-covered liquid ocean on the Jovian moon Europa.

Mass

Approximate size comparison of Earth and Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot
Approximate size comparison of Earth and Jupiter, including the Great Red Spot

Jupiter is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets in our Solar System combined — this is so massive that its barycenter with the Sun actually lies above the Sun's surface (1.068 solar radii from the Sun's center). Although this planet dwarfs the Earth (with a diameter 11 times as great) it is considerably less dense. Jupiter's volume is equal to 1,317 Earths, yet is only 318 times as massive.[17][18]

Theoretical models indicate that if Jupiter had much more mass than it does at present, the planet would shrink. For small changes in mass, the radius would not change appreciably, and above about four Jupiter masses the interior would become so much more compressed under the increased gravitation force that the planet's volume would actually decrease despite the increasing amount of matter. As a result, Jupiter is thought to have about as large a diameter as a planet of its composition and evolutionary history can achieve. The process of further shrinkage with increasing mass would continue until appreciable stellar ignition is achieved as in high-mass brown dwarfs around 50 Jupiter masses.[19] This has led some astronomers to term it a "failed star", although it is unclear whether or not the processes involved in the formation of planets like Jupiter are similar to the processes involved in the formation of multiple star systems.

Although Jupiter would need to be about 75 times as massive to fuse hydrogen and become a star, the smallest red dwarf is only about 30 percent larger in radius than Jupiter.[20][21] In spite of this, Jupiter still radiates more heat than it receives from the Sun. The amount of heat produced inside the planet is nearly equal to the total solar radiation it receives.[22] This additional heat radiation is generated by the Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism through adiabatic contraction. This process results in the planet shrinking by about 2 cm each year.[23] When it was first formed, Jupiter was much hotter and was about twice its current diameter.[24]

Internal structure

This cut-away illustrates a model of the interior of Jupiter, with a rocky core overlaid by a deep layer of metallic hydrogen. NASA background image

Jupiter is thought to consist of a dense core with a mixture of elements, a surrounding layer of liquid metallic hydrogen with some helium, and an outer layer predominantly of molecular hydrogen.[23] Beyond this basic outline, there is still considerable uncertainty. The core is often described as rocky, but its detailed composition is unknown, as are the properties of materials at the temperatures and pressures of those depths (see below). The existence of the core is suggested by gravitational measurements[23] indicating a mass of from 12 to 45 times the Earth's mass or roughly 3%-15% of the total mass of Jupiter.[25][22] The presence of the core is also suggested by models of planetary formation involving initial formation of a rocky or icy core that is massive enough to collect its bulk of hydrogen and helium from the protosolar nebula. The core may in fact be absent, as gravitational measurements aren't precise enough to rule that possibility out entirely. Assuming it does exist, it may also be shrinking, as convection currents of hot liquid metallic hydrogen mix with the molten core and carry its contents to higher levels in the planetary interior.[23]

The core region is surrounded by dense metallic hydrogen, which extends outward to about 78 percent of the radius of the planet.[22] Rain-like droplets of helium and neon precipitate downward through this layer, depleting the abundance of these elements in the upper atmosphere.[15][26]

Above the layer of metallic hydrogen lies a transparent interior atmosphere of liquid hydrogen and gaseous hydrogen, with the gaseous portion extending downward from the cloud layer to a depth of about 1,000 km.[22] Instead of a clear boundary or surface between these different phases of hydrogen, there is probably a smooth gradation from gas to liquid as one descends.[27][28] This smooth transition happens whenever the temperature is above the critical temperature, which for hydrogen is only 33 K (see hydrogen).

The temperature and pressure inside Jupiter increase steadily toward the core. At the phase transition region where liquid hydrogen (heated beyond its critical point) becomes metallic, it is believed the temperature is 10,000 K and the pressure is 200 GPa. The temperature at the core boundary is estimated to be 36,000 K and the interior pressure is roughly 3,000–4,500 GPa.[22]

Cloud layers

See also: Cloud pattern on Jupiter
This looping animation shows the movement of Jupiter's counter-rotating cloud bands. In this image, the planet's exterior is mapped onto a cylindrical projection
This looping animation shows the movement of Jupiter's counter-rotating cloud bands. In this image, the planet's exterior is mapped onto a cylindrical projection

Jupiter is perpetually covered with clouds composed of ammonia crystals and possibly ammonium hydrosulfide. The clouds are located in the tropopause and are arranged into bands of different latitudes, known as tropical regions. These are sub-divided into lighter-hued zones and darker belts. The interactions of these conflicting circulation patterns cause storms and turbulence. Wind speeds of 100 m/s (360 km/h) are common in zonal jets.[29] The zones have been observed to vary in width, color and intensity from year to year, but they have remained sufficiently stable for astronomers to give them identifying designations.[18]

The cloud layer is only about 50 km deep, and consists of at least two decks of clouds: a thick lower deck and a thin clearer region. There may also be a thin layer of water clouds underlying the ammonia layer, as evidenced by flashes of lightning detected in the atmosphere of Jupiter. (Water is a polar molecule that can carry a charge, so it is capable of creating the charge separation needed to produce lightning.)[22] These electrical discharges can be up to a thousand times as powerful as lightning on the Earth.[30] The water clouds can form thunderstorms driven by the heat rising from the interior.[31]

The orange and brown coloration in the clouds of Jupiter are caused by upwelling compounds that change color when they are exposed to ultraviolet light from the Sun. The exact makeup remains uncertain, but the substances are believed to be phosphorus, sulfur or possibly hydrocarbons.[32][22] These colorful compounds, known as chromophores, mix with the warmer, lower deck of clouds. The zones are formed when rising convection cells form crystallizing ammonia that masks out these lower clouds from view.[17]

Jupiter's low axial tilt means that the poles constantly receive less solar radiation than at the planet's equatorial region. Convection within the interior of the planet transports more energy to the poles, however, balancing out the temperatures at the cloud layer.[18]

Great Red Spot and other storms

Main article: Great Red Spot
This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 9.2 million km (5.7 million mi) from Jupiter. Cloud details as small as 160 km (100 mi) across can be seen here. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex and variable wave motion. To give a sense of Jupiter's scale, the white oval storm directly below the Great Red Spot is approximately the same diameter as Earth.
This dramatic view of Jupiter's Great Red Spot and its surroundings was obtained by Voyager 1 on February 25, 1979, when the spacecraft was 9.2 million km (5.7 million mi) from Jupiter. Cloud details as small as 160 km (100 mi) across can be seen here. The colorful, wavy cloud pattern to the left of the Red Spot is a region of extraordinarily complex and variable wave motion. To give a sense of Jupiter's scale, the white oval storm directly below the Great Red Spot is approximately the same diameter as Earth.

The best known feature of Jupiter is the Great Red Spot, a persistent anticyclonic storm located 22 south of the equator that is larger than Earth. It is known to have been in existence since at least 1831,[33] and possibly since 1665.[34] Mathematical models suggest that the storm is stable and may be a permanent feature of the planet.[35] The storm is large enough to be visible through Earth-based telescopes.

The oval object rotates counterclockwise, with a period of about six days.[36] The Great Red Spot's dimensions are 24–40,000 km 12–14,000 km. It is large enough to contain two or three planets of Earth's diameter.[37] The maximum altitude of this storm is about 8 km above the surrounding cloudtops.[38]

Storms such as this are common within the turbulent atmospheres of gas giants. Jupiter also has white ovals and brown ovals, which are lesser unnamed storms. White ovals tend to consist of relatively cool clouds within the upper atmosphere. Brown ovals are warmer and located within the "normal cloud layer". Such storms can last as little as a few hours or stretch on for centuries.

Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager I to Jupiter, showing the motion of atmospheric bands, and circulation of the great red spot. NASA image.
Time-lapse sequence from the approach of Voyager I to Jupiter, showing the motion of atmospheric bands, and circulation of the great red spot. NASA image.

Even before Voyager proved that the feature was a storm, there was strong evidence that the spot could not be associated with any deeper feature on the planet's surface, as the Spot rotates differentially with respect to the rest of the atmosphere, sometimes faster and sometimes more slowly. During its recorded history it has traveled several times around the planet relative to any possible fixed rotational marker below it.

In 2000, an atmospheric feature formed in the southern hemisphere that is similar in appearance to the Great Red Spot, but smaller in size. This was created when several smaller, white oval-shaped storms merged to form a single feature—these three smaller white ovals were first observed in 1938. The merged feature was named Oval BA, and has been nicknamed Red Spot Junior. It has since increased in intensity and changed color from white to red.[39][40][41]

Planetary rings

Main article: Rings of Jupiter
The rings of Jupiter.
The rings of Jupiter.

Jupiter has a faint planetary ring system composed of three main segments: an inner torus of particles known as the halo, a relatively bright main ring, and an outer "gossamer" ring.[42] These rings appear to be made of dust, rather than ice as is the case for Saturn's rings.[22] The main ring is probably made of material ejected from the satellites Adrastea and Metis. Material that would normally fall back to the moon is pulled into Jupiter because of its strong gravitational pull. The orbit of the material veers towards Jupiter and new material is added by additional impacts.[43] In a similar way, the moons Thebe and Amalthea probably produce the two distinct components of the gossamer ring.[43]

Magnetosphere

Jupiter's broad magnetic field is 14 times as strong as the Earth's, ranging from 4.2 gauss (0.42 mT) at the equator to 10–14 gauss (1.0–1.4 mT) at the poles, making it the strongest in the Solar System (with the exception of sunspots).[17] This field is believed to be generated by eddy currents — swirling movements of conducting materials—within the metallic hydrogen core. The field traps a sheet of ionized particles from the solar wind, generating a highly-energetic magnetic field outside the planet — the magnetosphere. Electrons from this plasma sheet ionize the torus-shaped cloud of sulfur dioxide generated by the tectonic activity on the moon Io. Hydrogen particles from Jupiter's atmosphere are also trapped in the magnetosphere. Electrons within the magnetosphere generate a strong radio signature that produces bursts in the range of 0.6–30 MHz.[44]

At about 75 Jupiter radii from the planet, the interaction of the magnetosphere with the solar wind generates a bow shock. Surrounding Jupiter's magnetosphere is a magnetopause, located at the inner edge of a magnetosheath, where the planet's magnetic field becomes weak and disorganized. The solar wind interacts with these regions, elongating the magnetosphere on Jupiter's lee side and extending it outward until it nearly reaches the orbit of Saturn. The four largest moons of Jupiter all orbit within the magnetosphere, which protects them from the solar wind.[22]

***NOTES FROM SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - THE MOTHER'S DARKNESS ARE THE 4 MOONS NOW AND THIS IS WHO I KNOW THEY STOLE MY HOLY SPIRIT BLUE AND THIS IS WHAT THEY ARE USING TO PROTECT FROM THE SOLAR WINDS.

THEY ALSO MOVED THE AUROURA BOREALIS

Aurora borealis on Jupiter. Three bright dots are created by magnetic flux tubes that connect to the Jovian moons Io (on the left), Ganymede (on the bottom) and Europa (also on the bottom). In addition, the very bright almost circular region, called the main oval, and the fainter polar aurora can be seen.
Aurora borealis on Jupiter. Three bright dots are created by magnetic flux tubes that connect to the Jovian moons Io (on the left), Ganymede (on the bottom) and Europa (also on the bottom). In addition, the very bright almost circular region, called the main oval, and the fainter polar aurora can be seen.

The magnetosphere of Jupiter is responsible for intense episodes of radio emission from the planet's polar regions. Volcanic activity on the Jovian moon Io (see below) injects gas into Jupiter's magnetosphere, producing a torus of particles about the planet. As Io moves through this torus, the interaction generates Alfven waves that carry ionized matter into the polar regions of Jupiter. As a result, radio waves are generated through a cyclotron maser mechanism, and the energy is transmitted out along a cone-shaped surface. When the Earth intersects this cone, the radio emissions from Jupiter can exceed the solar radio output.[45]

Orbit and rotation

The average distance between Jupiter and the Sun is 778 million km (about 5.2 times the average distance from the Earth to the Sun, or 5.2 AU) and it completes an orbit every 11.86 years. The elliptical orbit of Jupiter is inclined 1.31 compared to the Earth. Because of an eccentricity of 0.048, the distance from Jupiter and the Sun varies by 75 million km between perihelion and aphelion, or the nearest and most distant points of the planet along the orbital path respectively.

The axial tilt of Jupiter is relatively small: only 3.13. As a result this planet does not experience significant seasonal changes, in contrast to Earth and Mars for example.[46]

Jupiter's rotation is the fastest of all the Solar System's planets, completing a rotation on its axis in slightly less than ten hours; this creates an equatorial bulge easily seen through an Earth-based amateur telescope. This rotation requires a centripetal acceleration at the equator of about 1.67 m/s, compared to the equatorial surface gravity of 24.79 m/s; thus the net acceleration felt at the equatorial surface is only about 23.12 m/s. The planet is shaped as an oblate spheroid, meaning that the diameter across its equator is longer than the diameter measured between its poles. On Jupiter, the equatorial diameter is 9275 km longer than the diameter measured through the poles.[28]

Because Jupiter is not a solid body, its upper atmosphere undergoes differential rotation. The rotation of Jupiter's polar atmosphere is about 5 minutes longer than that of the equatorial atmosphere; three "systems" are used as frames of reference, particularly when graphing the motion of atmospheric features. System I applies from the latitudes 10 N to 10 S; its period is the planet's shortest, at 9h 50m 30.0s. System II applies at all latitudes north and south of these; its period is 9h 55m 40.6s. System III was first defined by radio astronomers, and corresponds to the rotation of the planet's magnetosphere; its period is Jupiter's "official" rotation.[47]

Observation

Jupiter is usually the fourth brightest object in the sky (after the Sun, the Moon and Venus);[17] however at times Mars appears brighter than Jupiter. Depending on Jupiter's position with respect to the Earth, it can vary in visual magnitude from as bright as −2.8 at opposition down to −1.6 during conjunction with the Sun. The angular diameter of Jupiter likewise varies from 50.1 to 29.8 arc seconds.[3] Favorable oppositions occur when Jupiter is passing through perihelion, an event that occurs once per orbit. As Jupiter approaches perihelion in March 2011, there will be a favorable opposition in September 2010.[48]

The retrograde motion of an outer planet is caused by its relative location with respect to the Earth.

Earth overtakes Jupiter every 398.9 days as it orbits the Sun, a duration called the synodic period. As it does so, Jupiter appears to undergo retrograde motion with respect to the background stars. That is, for a period of time Jupiter seems to move backward in the night sky, performing a looping motion.

Jupiter's 12-year orbital period corresponds to the dozen constellations in the zodiac.[18] As a result, each time Jupiter reaches opposition it has advanced eastward by about the width of a zodiac constellation. The orbital period of Jupiter is also about two-fifths the orbital period of Saturn, forming a 5:2 orbital resonance between the two largest planets in the Solar System.

Because the orbit of Jupiter is outside the Earth's, the phase angle of Jupiter as viewed from the Earth never exceeds 11.5, and is almost always close to zero. That is, the planet always appears nearly fully illuminated when viewed through Earth-based telescopes. It was only during spacecraft missions to Jupiter that crescent views of the planet were obtained.[49]

Research and exploration

Ground-based telescope research

In 1610, Galileo Galilei discovered the four largest moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto (now known as the Galilean moons) using a telescope; thought to be the first observation of moons other than Earth's.

Note, however, that Chinese historian of astronomy, Xi Zezong, has claimed that Gan De, a Chinese astronomer, made this discovery of one of Jupiter's moons in 362 BC with the unaided eye, nearly two millennia before any Europeans.[50][51] Galileo's was also the first discovery of a celestial motion not apparently centered on the Earth. It was a major point in favor of Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the motions of the planets; Galileo's outspoken support of the Copernican theory placed him under the threat of the Inquisition.[52]

During 1660s, Cassini used a new telescope to discover spots and colorful bands on Jupiter and observed that the planet appeared oblate; that is, flattened at the poles. He was also able to estimate the rotation period of the planet.[12] In 1690 Cassini noticed that the atmosphere undergoes differential rotation.[22]

False-color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, imaged by Voyager 1, showing the Great Red Spot and a passing white oval.
False-color detail of Jupiter's atmosphere, imaged by Voyager 1, showing the Great Red Spot and a passing white oval.

The Great Red Spot, a prominent oval-shaped feature in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter, may have been observed as early as 1664 by Robert Hooke and in 1665 by Giovanni Cassini, although this is disputed. The pharmacist Heinrich Schwabe produced the earliest known drawing to show details of the Great Red Spot in 1831.[53]

The Red Spot was reportedly lost from sight on several occasions between 1665 and 1708 before becoming quite conspicuous in 1878. It was recorded as fading again in 1883 and at the start of the twentieth century.[54]

Both Giovanni Borelli and Cassini made careful tables of the motions of the Jovian moons, allowing predictions of the times when the moons would pass before or behind the planet. By the 1670s, however, it was observed that when Jupiter was on the opposite side of the Sun from the Earth, these events would occur about 17 minutes later than expected. Ole Rmer deduced that sight is not instantaneous (a finding that Cassini had earlier rejected[12]), and this timing discrepancy was used to estimate the speed of light.[55]

In 1892, E. E. Barnard observed a fifth satellite of Jupiter with the 36-inch refractor at Lick Observatory in California. The discovery of this relatively small object, a testament to his keen eyesight, quickly made him famous. The moon was later named Amalthea.[56] It was the last planetary moon to be discovered directly by visual observation.[57] An additional eight satellites were subsequently discovered prior to the flyby of the Voyager 1 probe in 1979.

In 1932, Rupert Wildt identified absorption bands of ammonia and methane in the spectra of Jupiter.[58]

Three long-lived anticyclonic features termed white ovals were observed in 1938. For several decades they remained as separate features in the atmosphere, sometimes approaching each other but never merging. Finally, two of the ovals merged in 1998, then absorbed the third in 2000, becoming Oval BA.[59]

In 1955, Bernard Burke and Kenneth Franklin detected bursts of radio signals coming from Jupiter at 22.2 MHz.[22] The period of these bursts matched the rotation of the planet, and they were also able to use this information to refine the rotation rate. Radio bursts from Jupiter were found to come in two forms: long bursts (or L-bursts) lasting up to several seconds, and short bursts (or S-bursts) that had a duration of less than a hundredth of a second.[60]

Scientists discovered that there were three forms of radio signals being transmitted from Jupiter.

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SOPHIA WISDOM III SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
 
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____________________________________________________
 
AGE
OF
GEMINI
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
 
 
 
The Age of Gemini
Symbol for Gemini:
The zodiacal signs:
  • the vernal equinox (northern hemisphere) is occurring in Gemini;

Timeframes

  • Zodiacal 30 degrees:
  • Heindel-Rosicrucian based interpretation: began in ca. 5970 BC and ended in ca. 3814 BC (the orb of influence started in ca. 6690 BC)
  • Neil Mann interpretation: began in ca. 6450 BC and ended in ca. 4300 BC.
  • Constellation boundary year: (not calculated).
  • Shephard Simpson interpretation: (none).

Overview "The Age of Communication, Trade and the Twins"
Historical similarities During this age writing developed, and trade started to accelerate. This corresponds to the symbols the Gemini constellation represents. The constellation can be seen as two people holding hands (thought to be twins), believed by some to be symbolic for trade and communication of peoples. Regardless of the lore associated with the constellation of Gemini, both writing (including
literature, newspapers, journals, magazines and works of fiction) and trade (including merchants) are traditional archetypes belonging to the sign of Gemini.

The wheel, although having been used earlier as potter's wheels, was used for the first time for transportation purposes around the 5th millennium BC. Most forms of local transportation (horse and cart, bicycles, suburban trains, trams, cars, motorcycles, walking, roads, freeways etc) are archetypes associated with the sign of Gemini.
Religious similarities Multiple gods, such as the pantheon of gods in Ancient Greek literature, are believed to have appeared in this
Gemini age probably in Sumer (Mesopotamia). (Gemini not only is associated with the archetype of `twins' and `duality' but also 'multiplicity')

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY

 
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AGE
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GEMINI
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
CAROLINE E. KENNEDY - CAROLINA KENNEDIA
 

THE SOPHIA OF ALL THE SOPHIA'S OF WISDOMS

SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - GUEST BOOK
 
 
GUEST BOOK

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