SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - EUROPA & THE SEABULL
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - EUROPA & THE SEABULL
DECEMBER 28, 2006
LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF
Europa and the Sea Bull: The Missing Link
Between Phoenicia and France
***NOTE: JFK, JR. TOOK CAROLYN BESSETTE FOR A SAIL ON THE ARAGON SEA WHICH IS A REACTMENT
OF A PAST LIFE WITH ME NOT HER....
EUROPA WAS A DAUGTHER OF GOD......AND CAROLYN BESSETTE'S FATHER WAS NOT A GOD........
By now, most readers should be familiar with the story of the Quinotaur, the mythical sea beast (part-bull, part-fish)
that sired the race of Merovingian kings. But what has heretofore served as the beginning of the Merovingian
saga is only part of the story. For the first part of the drama, we must go back to the ancient sea peoples of Phoenicia.
One of the strange legends of the Phoenicians involves the disappearance of Europa, the daughter of Canaan
1, the son of Poseidon. In some versions of the story, Europa was a princess, in others, the daughter of a god. She was said
to be exceedingly beautiful, and her father's favorite. One day a servant came into the palace and told Europa that a beautiful
white bull had appeared mysteriously on the beach. Intrigued, Europa went down to see the unusual creature. The bull, we are
told, was indeed very beautiful, and seemingly very tame and playful. Europa wrapped garlands of flowers around its horns,
and frolicked beside it. Encouraged by the creature's gentleness, she climbed atop it, and it ran about the beach to her utter
delight. Then, unexpectedly, the creature turned and ran toward the ocean. The servant ran after the two, but it was no use.
The bull had run into the waves and had begun to swim out to sea. Europa's handmaiden could only watch in helpless horror
as the vision of the princess disappeared off into the distance.
This same story is told by the Greeks, the only exception
being that the figure of Canaan is replaced by Aegeanor (from whose name we derive the Aegean Sea.) Perhaps the oddest aspect
of this unusual story is that historical chroniclers deny that its purely mythological. Herodotus says that the story of Europa
was based on a real incident, and that she was in fact an historical personage. Though such a claim is certainly bizarre,
it seems no less bizarre than the fact that the continent of Europe should have taken its name from the central figure in
such a story. Why name a continent after a girl associated with the notion of being taken away by a sea bull? It only starts
to make sense when one considers the story of Europa in conjunction with the story of the Quinotaur. The tale that begins
with the kidnapping of Europa is finished by the myth of the Quinotaur, who sires a race of sacred kings. For the Greeks (and
many scholars), the sea bull of the Europa saga is seen as Zeus, the god traditionally associated with (or personified as)
a bull. But bulls were also associated with many of the gods and kings of Phoenicia and Sumeria. In fact, the figure of the
sea bull can be traced directly to the figure of Dagon, discussed elsewhere in this issue. An alternate name of Zeus was Dyaus,
and an alternate name for Dagon was Daonos. So it would seem that Zeus and Dagon were different labels, applied by different
cultures in different times to essentially the same figure. This of course is a very common process, and one that is encountered
repeatedly in even the most superficial comparisons of one mythology to another. The kings of the most ancient cultures in
time become their gods, and repeatedly the gods of dominant cultures become the gods of less dominant ones. So it is that
the sea bull of Europa is one in the same as the Quinotaur of the Merovingian kings, and as the Quinotaur was the legendary
father of European monarchs, the mother was Europa, after whom they named their continent.
of a "Quinotaur" was drawn by Sir Francis Dashwood, notorious founder of the Hellfire Club, and co-conspirator
of Arch-Mason, Ben Franklin. It is believed to have been drawn on Dashwood's first trip to Italy, and based on a statue from
the palace of Nero.
1 Canaan was a historical figure after whom the Phoenician city-state was named.
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - EUROPA THE CURRENCY
LIBRARY OF SOPHIA OF WISDOM III
SOPHIA OF ALL SOPHIA OF WISDOMS
OCTOBER 29, 2006
Sources differ in details regarding her family but
agree that she is Phoenician, and from a lineage that descended from Io, the mythical nymph beloved of Zeus, who was transformed
into a heifer. She is said to be the daughter of the Phoenician King Agenor and Queen Telephassa ("far-shining") or of Argiope
("white-faced"). Other sources, such as the Iliad, claim that she is the daughter of Agenor's son, the "sun-red" Phoenix.
It is generally agreed that she had two brothers, Cadmus, who brought the alphabet to mainland Greece, and Cilix who gave
his name to Cilicia in Asia Minor, with Apollodorus including Phoenix as a third. After arriving in Crete, Europa had three
sons: Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon. She married Asterion also rendered Asterius. According to mythology, her children
were fathered by Zeus.
There were two competing myths relating how Europa came into the Hellenic world, but they
agreed that she came to Crete, where the sacred bull was paramount. In the more familiar telling she was seduced by the god
Zeus in the form of a bull and carried away to Crete on his back— to be welcomed by Asterion , but according to a
more literal, euhemerist version in Herodotus, she was kidnapped by Minoans, who likewise were said to have taken her to Crete.
The mythical Europa cannot be separated from the mythology of the sacred bull, which had been worshipped in the Levant.
Abduction of Europa by Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, 1632. The princess Europa is carried away from her companions and across
the sea to the distant land that would bear her name by the god Jupiter (in the guise of a white bull).
Rape of Europa"
According to legend, Zeus was enamored of her and decided to seduce or rape her, the two being
near-equivalent in Greek myth. He transformed himself into a white bull and mixed in with her father's herds. While Europa
and her female attendants were gathering flowers, she saw the bull and caressed his flanks and eventually got onto its back.
Zeus took that chance and ran to the sea and swam, with her on his back, to the island of Crete. He then revealed his true
identity, and Europa became the first queen of Crete. Zeus gave her three gifts: Talos, Laelaps and a javelin that never missed.
Zeus later re-created the shape of the white bull in the stars which is now known as the constellation Taurus. Some readers
interpret as manifestations of this same bull the Cretan beast that was encountered by Hercules, the Marathonian Bull slain
by Theseus (and that fathered the Minotaur). Also known as "The Abduction of Europa" and "The Seduction
of Europa," Roman mythology adopted the tale, substituting the god Jupiter for Zeus.
It is tempting to see in this
story the remnants of oral history about the settlement of the island. Cretans were of course great sailors, as all islanders
must be, and must have come from some mainland area by raft or ship. They must also have brought their cattle and other livestock
with them, since bulls figured prominently in their sports, arts and religious imagery. In the mythological transformation
of history, however, roles are reversed, and the bull provides the transportation for the founding mother of the Minoan people.
Europa in literature
According to Herodotus, Europa was kidnapped by Minoans who were seeking
to avenge the kidnapping of Io, a princess from Argos. His variant story may have been an attempt to rationalize the earlier
myth; or the present myth may be a garbled version of facts — the rape of a Phoenician aristocrat — later enunciated
without gloss by Herodotus.
SOPHIA OF WISDOM III - CAROLINE E. KENNEDY
Europa ("yoo ROH puh") is the sixth of Jupiter's known satellites and the fourth largest; it is the second of the Galilean moons. Europa is slightly smaller than the Earth's Moon.
orbit: 670,900 km from Jupiter
diameter: 3138 km
mass: 4.80e22 kg
Europa was a Phoenician princess abducted to Crete by Zeus, who had assumed the form of a white bull,
and by him the mother of Minos.
Discovered by Galileo and Marius in 1610.
Europa and Io are somewhat similar in bulk composition to the terrestrial planets: primarily composed of silicate rock. Unlike Io, however, Europa has a thin outer layer of ice. Recent data from Galileo indicate that Europa has a layered internal structure perhaps with a small metallic core.
But Europa's surface is not at all like anything in the inner solar system. It is exceedingly
smooth: few features more than a few hundred meters high have been seen. The prominent markings seem to be only albedo features with very low relief.
There are very few craters on Europa; only three craters larger than 5 km in diameter have been
found. This would seem to indicate a young and active surface. However, the Voyagers mapped only a fraction of the surface at high resolution. The precise age of Europa's surface is an open question.
The images of Europa's surface strongly resemble images of sea ice on Earth. It is possible
that beneath Europa's surface ice there is a layer of liquid water, perhaps as much as 50 km deep, kept liquid by tidally
generated heat. If so, it would be the only place in the solar system besides Earth where liquid water exists in significant
Europa's most striking aspect is a series of dark streaks crisscrossing the entire globe. The
larger ones are roughly 20 km across with diffuse outer edges and a central band of lighter material. The latest theory of
their origin is that they are produced by a series of volcanic eruptions or geysers.
Recent observations with HST reveal that Europa has a very tenuous atmosphere (1e-11 bar) composed of oxygen. Of the many
moons in the solar system only five others (Io, Ganymede, Callisto, Titan and Triton) are known to have atmospheres. Unlike the oxygen in Earth's atmosphere, Europa's is almost certainly not of biologic origin. It is most likely generated
by sunlight and charged particles hitting Europa's icy surface producing water vapor which is subsequently split into hydrogen
and oxygen. The hydrogen escapes leaving the oxygen.
The Voyagers didn't get a very good look at Europa. But it is a principal focus of the Galileo mission. Images from Galileo's first two close encounters with Europa seem to confirm earlier theories that Europa's
surface is very young: very few craters are seen, some sort of activity is obviously occurring. There are regions that look very much like pack-ice on polar seas during spring thaws on Earth. The exact nature
of Europa's surface and interior is not yet clear but the evidence is now strong for a subsurface 'ocean'.
Galileo has found that Europa has a weak magnetic field (perhaps 1/4 of the strength of Ganymede's).
And most interestingly, it varies periodically as it passes thru Jupiter's massive magnetic field. This is very strong evidence that there is
a conducting material beneath Europa's surface, most likely a salty ocean.
More about Europa
- How thick is the surface ice? Is there liquid water below? The proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter spacecraft might find out.
- What are the surface streaks? How were they formed?
- Why is the surface so smooth?
- Is Europa being heated by tidal friction like Io? How much? Is there any volcanism, perhaps
hidden beneath the ice?
- The possible presence of liquid water and volcanism on Europa puts it on my list of possible life-bearing bodies, though, of course, the probability is very low.
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Bill Arnett; last updated: 2005 Oct 01